Religion and Politics

When I was younger I was told to never discuss religion and politics in polite company. I understand and agree with that sentiment. I fear some of my brothers and sisters have departed the realm of polite company.

This post is addressed to the church. If you’re not a Christian I am not addressing you. In this post I would like to help my brothers and sisters in Christ understand the impact of their words, spoken and written. If you agree with the tweet pictured above I would like for you to imagine reading the following or hearing it in a sermon:

<Offense>

“Have you repented of voting for Hillary Clinton? She’s a sinner! She advocates expanding abortion on demand which destroys human flourishing by killing the unborn and emotionally devastating the mother of the unborn. Clinton was under an active investigation days before the election – she is morally corrupt. So I ask again: Have you repented for your vote for such a person as this?”

</Offense>

“Why Would You Write Such a Thing, Andy?”

At the time of this writing, I’ve been hearing this message for almost 11 months. The target of the discussion hasn’t been Hillary Clinton; it’s been President Trump.

What’s Right With This Sentiment?

President Donald J. Trump is a sinner. As am I. As are you. Romans 3:23 tells us plainly:

…for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,…

Hillary Clinton is a sinner. Former President Obama is a sinner.

What is the end of sin? What does sin do for us?

Romans 6:23 tells us sin ends in death. James 1:14-15 tells us:

But each person is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desire. Then desire when it has conceived gives birth to sin, and sin when it is fully grown brings forth death.

Sin leads to death. We all sin, we do so when we are led by our desires instead of surrendering to Christ by denying ourselves, taking up our cross daily, and following Him (Luke 9:23). When we sin we have an Advocate with the Father – none other than Jesus Christ, our Lord.

If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. – 1 John 1:9

What’s Wrong With This Sentiment?

We, the bride of Christ, the church, are commanded to deny ourselves, take up our cross, and follow Jesus.

“If anyone would come after me…” – Jesus

What does “denying ourselves” look like when it comes to living during the presidential administration of a president with whom we disagree on almost every issue? Does denying ourselves mean we have to agree with a president we do not prefer? Does denying ourselves mean we have to support policies we find abhorrent? Does denying ourselves mean we need to be “polite company” and be silent about dissent?

I believe not.

Should we judge one president (or former presidential candidate) as “righteous” and another as “unrighteous?” Do we have that authority? Do we have that right? I ask as a Christian and an American citizen – what say you, church?

Should We Condemn Those We Don’t Like?

How then ought we to live when an administration with which we disagree is in office? Should we agree with the world? Should we judge our brothers and sisters who voted for President Trump, tell them they should repent, and ask, “What about them?

I write these words because I wrote these other words: “I was a Jerk and I am Sorry.

Church, Stop.

Church, I’m calling you out. Humbly, seeking restoration and reconciliation, in the same spirit of Galatians 2:11-14, I’m asking you to cut it out. Repent. Be salt and light. Get back your saltiness. Remove this political-preference basket covering your light.

Stop agreeing with the world. Cease and desist calling your brothers and sisters “uneducated” and thereby committing the sin of showing partiality described in James 2:1-13.

Trump-Sins

For eight years (2009-2016) you preached tolerance and respect for the office of President of the United States. What has changed? Has God changed? Has God’s Word changed? Or have you changed? Is God’s Word different because you are offended?

I see us behaving poorly, church (like I behaved poorly). I see us tearing ourselves apart.

And I weep.

We have invented a new class of sins: Trump-sins. When the Supreme Court discovered a right to homosexual marriage in the Constitution of the United States we preached that homosexuality was a sin but not a special sin. “We’re all sinners,” we said. “We all need Christ,” we called. “Love the sinner, hate the sin,” we preached. But racism? That’s a special and intolerable sin. It’s a Trump-sin. When’s the last time you heard a sermon on “Love the racist, hate the racism”? I’m going to guess never.

Racism is a particularly heinous sin. I wrote about racism in a post titled Tread With Care, Church. The sin of racism is an ugly, hate-filled sin that has no place in the Body of Christ.

The sin of judging our brothers and sisters who voted for President Trump is an ugly, hate-filled sin that has no place in the Body of Christ.

Should we oppose racism? Yes, vehemently.
Should we oppose abortion on demand? Yes, vehemently.
Should we preach the truth of the Gospel to every creature? Yes!
Should we let our preferences – personal and political – dictate the Gospel we preach? Absolutely not.

We should instead deny ourselves.

Unity?

In 1 Corinthians 12:12-31 Paul was inspired by the Holy Spirit to write these words to the church at Corinth:

For just as the body is one and has many members, and all the members of the body, though many, are one body, so it is with Christ. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body—Jews or Greeks, slaves or free—and all were made to drink of one Spirit.

For the body does not consist of one member but of many. If the foot should say, “Because I am not a hand, I do not belong to the body,” that would not make it any less a part of the body. And if the ear should say, “Because I am not an eye, I do not belong to the body,” that would not make it any less a part of the body. If the whole body were an eye, where would be the sense of hearing? If the whole body were an ear, where would be the sense of smell? But as it is, God arranged the members in the body, each one of them, as he chose. If all were a single member, where would the body be? As it is, there are many parts, yet one body.

The eye cannot say to the hand, “I have no need of you,” nor again the head to the feet, “I have no need of you.” On the contrary, the parts of the body that seem to be weaker are indispensable, and on those parts of the body that we think less honorable we bestow the greater honor, and our unpresentable parts are treated with greater modesty, which our more presentable parts do not require. But God has so composed the body, giving greater honor to the part that lacked it, that there may be no division in the body, but that the members may have the same care for one another. If one member suffers, all suffer together; if one member is honored, all rejoice together.

Now you are the body of Christ and individually members of it. And God has appointed in the church first apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healing, helping, administrating, and various kinds of tongues. Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Do all work miracles? Do all possess gifts of healing? Do all speak with tongues? Do all interpret? But earnestly desire the higher gifts.

And I will show you a still more excellent way.

Unity is not uniformity. In fact, the Holy Spirit goes to great lengths here to describe just how different each member is from other members. And yet we are told “God has so composed the body, giving greater honor to the part that lacked it, that there may be no division in the body, but that the members may have the same care for one another.” (emphasis added)

Brothers and sisters, we are not going to feel the same way about political candidates and issues. It’s just not going to happen. And our disagreement is by design: “If all were a single member, where would the body be? As it is, there are many parts, yet one body.” (emphasis added)

How did this happen? Who lumped together all these people who disagree? “God arranged the members in the body, each one of them, as he chose.” (emphasis added)

What, Then, Does Unity Mean?

Clearly, unity doesn’t mean uniformity in beliefs, passions, gifts, and preferences: “Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Do all work miracles? Do all possess gifts of healing? Do all speak with tongues? Do all interpret?” (emphasis added) Let’s face it, the Holy Spirit beats this horse a lot. Why? We need to hear it.

We need to live it.

We are to love one another, bear one another’s burdens, even.

Reconcile

Reconciliation needs to begin with us, church. We need to reconcile with our brothers and sisters.
We need to reconcile with our brothers and sisters who voted for the other candidate.
We need to reconcile with our brothers and sisters who are members of a different race.

We need to reconcile ourselves first so that we remove the plank from our own eye. Everyone, on all sides, needs to repent – to uncover the light and be salty again. Then we can see clearly to remove splinters from the eyes of the world who are watching us. How important is loving one another? This is how we show the world we are His disciples:

In Closing: Repent, Church

The word “repent” means to turn around and go the other way. Brothers and sisters – conservatives and progressives, Democrats and Republicans – I urge us all to repent, obey the Gospel, deny ourselves, love our enemies, love one another, reconcile ourselves, and thus communicate the message of reconciliation as ambassadors for Christ to the world.

Peace.

Friends with the World?

James warns the young church in chapter 4: “Do you not know that friendship with the world is enmity with God? Therefore whoever wishes to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God.” His characterization of such a relationship? “Adulterous!

Ellicott’s commentary renders the interpretation, “ye adulteresses!”

The phrase may seem to flow naturally after the former ones, but the Received text, from which our version was made, is wrong. It should be, ye adulteresses! as accusing those who have broken their marriage vow to God.

“What If I Agree With the World?”

It’s possible for a Christian to agree with worldly endeavors, at least on the surface. Efforts to alleviate poverty are a good example of overlap between Christian and secular goals. As Christians, we often speak of “human flourishing” and cite the words of our Lord in John 10:10, “I came that they may have life and have it abundantly.”

While we agree on the surface, motivations of the church and world are likely at odds just below the surface. The church is motivated to obey our Lord’s command to deny ourselves, take up our cross daily, and follow Him. We love our neighbors. We seek to serve.

The world has different motives hence the warning found in 2 Corinthians 6:14:

Do not be unequally yoked with unbelievers. For what partnership has righteousness with lawlessness? Or what fellowship has light with darkness?

Paul’s words echo the words of James: “friendship,” “partnership,” “fellowship.”

Warning: When I Agree With the World

Church, I urge us to examine our own motives when we find ourselves in agreement with the world. Some questions to ask ourselves:

  • Are we loving the Lord with all our strength? (Mark 12:30)
  • Are we loving our neighbor? (Mark 12:31)
  • Are we loving our enemy? (Matthew 5:44)
  • Are we denying ourselves, taking up our cross daily, and following Christ? (Luke 9:23)

One ploy of the devil is to begin with God’s Word and then ask, “Did God actually say…” (Genesis 3:1). When we listen to Satan we may find ourselves in idolatrous sin. Some questions to ask ourselves:

  • What is more important to me, this cause / movement or Christ?
  • Do I feel led to participate in this cause / movement and follow Christ, or is my participation in this cause / movement simply me following Christ?
  • If I have to choose between this cause / movement and following Christ, do I want out of the church?

Final Thoughts

Satan has millennia of experience ensnaring humans. He is an expert at manipulation. He never approaches with his end goal, he often begins with God’s Word. Peter, who experienced this firsthand, describes him thus:

Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour.

Idolatry is an easy sin. “Be sober-minded; be watchful.” Peter’s words, again. Remember:

God is just, but justice is not God.
God is love, but love is not God.

Peace.

Tread with Care, Church

I write this in the wake of marches and counter-protests in Charlottesville that included violence along with tragic and needless injury and death.

It is to my shame that I admit I became aware of institutional racism in just the past few years. Institutional racism is real. Data about the treatment of black males in our society makes this case. More heartbreaking (for me, at least) is data included in the book Dataclysm: Who We Are (When We Think No One’s Looking) by Christian Rudder.

In the book, OKCupid Data Scientist Christian Rudder shares “hot or not” type experiments conducted on images of men and women. When rated by others, black men scored lower.

The heartbreaking part is that when rated by black men, black men scored themselves lower.

That’s not the heartbreaking part. The heartbreaking part is that when rated by black men, black men scored themselves lower.

I’m not a psychologist but I know how you feel about yourself affects how you behave and think and, ultimately, what you do. In my humble opinion, black men rating themselves lower than men of other races is a problem. It may even be the problem. At a minimum, it’s close to the heart of the matter, close to the root cause (if not the root cause).

“Who is this Helping?”

I’m tagging this post and promoting it on social media in the hope that these words help someone – some white person of faith struggling with squaring “bear one another’s burdens” with “the destruction of our heritage.” I’m also hoping to confess to my black brothers and sisters in Christ that slowly, too slowly (in my case), some white people and people who are mostly white and appear white (like half the residents of the US east coast I’m 1/8 Cherokee) – me and some like me – are beginning to understand.

I apologize for taking this long to understand. I want to help others understand, especially my white brothers and sisters who now believe as I once believed, that tip-of-the-iceberg heavily-reported incidents of racism can be excused and explained away with “just do what the officer says.”*

My Story: A Brief History

I began researching racial data after Michael Brown was shot and killed in August 2014. There was very little data to be found, which was troubling in itself. Crime statistics were available along with incarceration rates. The rates of incarceration struck me. When balanced for other factors, black men are jailed at a rate of three times their white counterparts.

That fact, combined with the statistics supplied from OKCupid by Christian Rudder, changed my thinking on the existence and severity of institutional racism in the US.

Church, Bear One Another’s Burdens

I want to specifically speak to Christians here. Mostly white Christians and Christians who appear white. Paul tells us in Galatians 3:26-28:

So in Christ Jesus you are all children of God through faith, for all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. (emphasis added)

The Holy Spirit inspired these words. The Holy Spirit’s point here? Race doesn’t matter in the church. Social and economic status doesn’t matter in the church. Genitalia doesn’t matter in the church. We who were baptized into Christ have clothed ourselves with Christ. We are all one. In Christ.

How should we treat one another? The same Holy Spirit inspired Galatians 6:2: “Bear one another’s burdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ.”

This sounds innocent enough, doesn’t it? “Bear one another’s burdens.” How does that work? What does that look like in practice?

An historical issue with Bible interpretation – or misinterpretation – is taking God’s Word out of context. So let’s look at Galatians 6:2 in context:

Brothers and sisters, if anyone is caught in any transgression, you who are spiritual should restore him in a spirit of gentleness. Keep watch on yourself, lest you too be tempted. Bear one another’s burdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ. For if anyone thinks he is something, when he is nothing, he deceives himself. Galatians 6:1-3

The context here is sinning – being caught in any transgression. And then restoration with the help of others. Who are the others? The body of Christ; the church. What is “another’s burden” then? Is it their sin? Am I supposed to bear the sin of my brother or sister? If I didn’t sin, I think not. But what if I am guilty of the same sin? I think so. Especially if we have been delivered from said sin. Isn’t this why we suffered in the first place? 2 Corinthians 1:3-4 states:

Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort, who comforts us in all our affliction, so that we may be able to comfort those who are in any affliction, with the comfort with which we ourselves are comforted by God.

We suffer – sometimes at our own hand. God delivers us, perhaps with the help of our brothers and sisters who are obeying Galatians 6:1 – the church – who restore us in a spirit of gentleness. Then we comfort others who are suffering in the same way. We are wounded healers.

Too often in the church we rush to the holy doormat and dust off our sandals; too often we shoot our wounded.

“Bear one another’s burden’s” includes bearing with our brothers and sisters as they struggle with sin. This is hard. Bearing with our brothers and sisters while they sin requires a tolerance that only the Holy Spirit can supply. Too often in the church we rush to the holy doormat and dust off our sandals; too often we shoot our wounded.

The test of tolerance is the intolerant. Tolerating a sin of intolerance is not possible without God’s help. We are commanded, though, to bear this burden. That’s why I am writing this post: to reach out to my (currently-) intolerant white brothers and sisters.

To My White Brothers and Sisters:

To my white brothers and sisters who think “they bring it on themselves,” I would say two things: There is data you must explain. The data says institutional racism exists and that – all other things being equal – black males are three times as likely to be incarcerated for the same crime. No one wants to be incarcerated; no one brings that on themselves, so that’s wrong-headed thinking. But let’s suppose for just a moment that you’re right about our black brothers and sisters bringing all this on themselves; aren’t we commanded in God’s Word to bear their burden?

So…

If you believe that our black brothers and sisters are suffering unjustly, we white Christians ought to speak up.

If you believe that our black brothers and sisters “brought this upon themselves,” we white Christians ought to bear their burdens and restore them in a spirit of gentleness.**

There’s no “out” for us, white brothers and sisters.

There’s More

Do you feel your heritage is being destroyed? Let’s say you’re right about that (for the record, I believe you are. [While this is a fine quote to take out of context, I implore you to read on first…]). What does God’s Word say about it?

Romans 14 speaks to people who believed eating meat was a sin because some meat sold in the market came from sacrifices to idols. Others thought eating meat – even meat sacrificed to idols – was acceptable because they gave thanks to God for the meal before eating it.

Who’s “right?” Who’s “wrong?” Paul gives some very interesting answers in Romans 14, please go read the chapter. I’ll wait.

Done? Cool, let’s continue.

Did you catch the Holy Spirit’s conclusion on the matter? It’s all over the second half of the chapter:

Therefore let us not pass judgment on one another any longer, but rather decide never to put a stumbling block or hindrance in the way of a brother. Romans 14:13

And

For if your brother is grieved by what you eat, you are no longer walking in love. By what you eat, do not destroy the one for whom Christ died. Romans 14:15

And

Do not, for the sake of food, destroy the work of God. Everything is indeed clean, but it is wrong for anyone to make another stumble by what he eats. It is good not to eat meat or drink wine or do anything that causes your brother to stumble. Romans 14:20-21

Please bear with me as I ask some pointed questions:

  1. Are you judging our black brothers and sisters in Christ?
  2. By clinging to our heritage, are we destroying the one for whom Christ died?
  3. Is it good to not have statues that cause our black brothers and sisters to stumble?

What’s more important, our heritage or our testimony as Christians? It’s fair to ask, “Why can’t we have both?” We cannot. Here’s why:

The Holy Spirit does not say, “if your brothers and sisters are offended, re-educate them.” The Holy Spirit does not say, “If you brothers and sisters are offended, share with them the error of their ways.”

I don’t know how much more plain the Holy Spirit can make this: If our heritage offends our brothers and sisters in Christ, we must let it go. In Jesus’ Name, we must let it go. This is the commandment we are given: Let. It. Go.

Why does the Holy Spirit command such a thing? 2 Corinthians 10:5-6 points out there are arguments, opinions, and thoughts that are “against the knowledge of God”:

We destroy arguments and every lofty opinion raised against the knowledge of God, and take every thought captive to obey Christ, being ready to punish every disobedience, when your obedience is complete. 2 Corinthians 10:5-6

How are we to respond to arguments, opinions, and thoughts that are “raised against the knowledge of God,” church? They are to be destroyed. They are to be taken captive to obey Christ.

I urge every white brother and sister who feels hurt by losing our heritage to pray and to consider their consciences before Christ in this matter. I am not denying your pain, I promise. I am – humbly – suggesting to you a better way: obedience to God’s Word. God’s Word is clear: When faced with a choice between what we want – when what we want is a sin, surely; but even if what we want is not a sin – and offending a brother or sister, we are commanded to let what we want go.

“It’s Not Fair”

Brothers and sisters, I write this with much love, I promise: Fair left the building when Christ died for your sins and my sins on the cross. Consider Christ’s example, brothers and sisters:

Let each of you look not only to his own interests, but also to the interests of others. Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus, who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied himself, by taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross. Philippians 2:4-8

Have the mind of Christ. Please.

I have prayed over this matter of heritage and legacy and history and reached this conclusion: If statues that commemorate my heritage offend my black brothers and sisters, then they must go.

Tread with Care

And so I urge us all, church, to tread with care. There are warnings for me and for those who agree with me:

  1. Let’s not ignore the Holy Spirit’s warning in Galatians 6:3, “For if anyone thinks he is something, when he is nothing, he deceives himself.” Let’s not deceive ourselves.
  2. Let’s not play the role of the Pharisee in Luke 18:9-14 and thank God we are not like our brothers and sisters who struggle with the sin of racism.

Let’s instead follow the Holy Spirit’s command in Galatians 6:1 and restore them in a spirit of gentleness.

Let’s echo those who heard the message of the disciples on the day of Pentecost and re-ask their vital question, “Brothers, what shall we do?”

Peace.

*To be fair, I tell my children “just do what the officer says.” But my children, who appear white and are mostly white, do not face the same level of hostility as black children.

**I do not believe black people are “bringing this upon themselves.” I share this advice in prayerful hope that white Christians who do believe this will begin communicating with their black brothers and sisters about racism – both overt racism and institutional racism – and that God will use this communication to change the hearts of white Christians who believe thus.

Post-post Note: I continue to examine my heart over the issue of race relations. I do not have all the answers; but I know The Answer. Like all idols, idols of privilege (“that’s the way it is”) and pride are insidious. Calvin said it well: “…man’s nature is a perpetual factory of idols…”.

Separating Church and State: Confessions of an Idolater

In 2011 I was participating in an online Bible study group with some friends. We studied the Bible, prayed for each other, shared struggles and inspirations, and recommended extra-Bible reading.

It was during one of these sessions that one friend recommended the book Radical by David Platt. I downloaded the book to my Kindle and… let it sit there. For over six months. Why? I was put off by the subtitle: “Taking Back Your Faith from the American Dream.”

Why did that put me off?

That turned out to be an excellent question to explore.

My faith was wrapped up in the American dream. The two were so coupled that, to me, they seemed one and the same. I was, as I now describe it, an “American Christian.”

Being an American Christian meant that I:

  • voted for one set of candidates, from one party
  • was a consumer of christian culture
  • was a fan of Jesus

I read the book very cautiously. I kept waiting to find the flaw in the logic, the exaggeration, the false positive correlation, the peg on which to hang my reservations and cling to my old rugged ‘Merican dream.

Instead, through much angst, conviction, and (finally) repentance, the Holy Spirit used brother Platt’s words to change my heart. It was perhaps the most powerful transformation since confessing Christ in February 1982.

Now I don’t want to mislead you into thinking I’ve overcome all that now, that I have (finally) arrived. Rather, I want you hear my confession:

I became aware of my sin of idolatry. I was mixing Christian faith with faith in my nation and its government.

The movie The Usual Suspects opens with the line, “The greatest trick the Devil ever pulled was convincing the world he didn’t exist.” It’s an interesting quote that’s applicable to my condition prior to conviction of my idolatry in this manner: I didn’t know what I didn’t know. I was simply unaware I’d coupled being a conservative American with Christianity.

But I had. It was a kind of blindness, denial, and lack of self-awareness.

2 Corinthians 1:3-5

In 2 Corinthians 1: 3-4 Paul wrote: “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort, who comforts us in all our affliction, so that we may be able to comfort those who are in any affliction, with the comfort with which we ourselves are comforted by God.” (emphasis mine).

I’m writing this confession because some of you are suffering as I was. I promise I’m not judging you, any more than a physician who tells you that you have the flu is judging you. Like the physician, I want to help.

If you, like me, find yourself believing that your support of our nation is equivalent to following Christ, I challenge you to prayerfully examine that belief. Perhaps read the book Radical. Especially if you are a conservative. I submit for your consideration that it’s possible for American conservatism to become an idol.

Also, if you are not a conservative and you believe that your resistance to the current administration is equivalent to following Christ, I challenge you to prayerfully consider that belief. I submit for your consideration that it’s possible for American liberalism to become an idol.

This is a test. If you agreed with one of the preceding two paragraphs and disagreed with the other, that’s a strong indication you are suffering idolatry.

Many progressive brothers and sisters rightfully champion God’s attributes of justice and love. So do I. More now than ever. God is love and God commands us to do justice, love kindness, and walk humbly with our God (emphasis mine). Although God is love and God is just, love is not God and justice is not God. I humbly submit that it’s possible to misunderstand God’s love (I am Exhibit A) and justice (ditto). It’s possible to put these awesomely good and cool attributes of God ahead of God.

It’s happened before.

In Numbers 21 we have an account of Israel in the wilderness becoming impatient. They complained about Moses and his leadership, and God punished them by sending “fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people, so that many people of Israel died.” At God’s command, Moses made an image of a fiery serpent out of bronze and set it on a pole. When people were bitten, they looked at the bronze serpent and lived.

Fast-forward 1,000 years to 2 Kings 18. Hezekiah, king of Israel, destroys the bronze serpent because “until those days the people of Israel had made offerings to it (it was called Nehushtan).”

The point? God commanded Moses to make something that was perverted into an idol.

Was the bronze serpent evil? Nope.
Did the bronze serpent become an idol? Yep.

I struggle with idolatry daily. When I pray, “Lord, today help me deny myself, take up my cross, and follow You,” I’m asking Jesus to reveal idols in my life, help me put them away, and help me recognize Christ as King of my heart, mind, soul, life, money, work, and everything that I am. My experience in 2012 made it abundantly clear to me how blind I can be to idolatry, and to how insidious a sin idolatry is. Kyle Idelman’s book, Gods at War addresses idolatry. I recommend it to anyone who wants to learn more.

Something to consider: Idolatry might just be the root sin of every sin.